Love in the Time of Error: The Sad Tale of Adolphus and Rachel Bauer

“In thy dark eyes splendor
Where the warm light loves to dwell
Weary looks get tender
Speak their last farewell.”

Such words immortalized the love of Adolphus Gustavus Bauer for his young wife, Rachel “Unaka” Blythe Bauer. Her sudden end resonated with him so deeply that in his heartbroken state, he felt the need to join her in death.

Blythe came from a family of Cherokee descent of Swain County. Among their tribe, her family held prestige as leaders. After attending Baptist Female University (current day Meredith College) for stenography, Blythe found work at the Post Office in Raleigh as a stamp clerk. She met Adolphus Gustavus Bauer, an architect whose reputation preceded him in works such as the Raleigh Executive Mansion, the Pullen Building, the Memorial Hall in Chapel Hill and the Western North Carolina Hospital for the Insane in Morganton.

image

Husband and wife met as boarders in a house and married in 1894, but kept it a secret from the Raleigh folks, as she was in the family way. Also, the marriage was not kindly looked upon much to the chagrin of the public. A marriage such as theirs went against the legality of marrying within one’s race. In June 1895, the couple journeyed to Washington, D.C. for a second wedding after seeking legal advice guaranteeing the out of state deal would be valid. Upon their return to Raleigh, the matter became a great debate as many deemed it illegal. Later that year, their first born daughter, Owenah was born. The Bauers remained in North Carolina and Adolphus’ career grew.

Unfortunately, tragedy never took a final bow. On May 2, 1896, while travelling with a business associate in Durham, a train struck their carriage. His fame dwindled as he found his new ailment set a true handicap on him. A brain injury would become the root of physical and mental distress in forms of dizziness, delusions and melancholia.

Shortly after the birth of their son, Fred, the lovely Rachel fell ill and died a few days later. Overcome by grief over his wife’s death, Adolphus sent his children to stay with relatives. It is said that even though his illness had taken over, he was still able to function, but becoming no stranger to death resulted in his mind never settling in the right direction again.

As a token of his love, a Grecian temple in the form of a tribute to Diana at Ephesus was erected. A photograph of Rachel in wedding attire set against the portico. Perhaps, Adolphus wanted to commend his wife’s virtues and attributes when he chose the Greek goddess. Underneath the dates is a play on the North Carolina motto, Esse Quam Videri which translates from Latin as “To be rather than to seem.” Instead, the words, “True worth is being, not seeming.” Adolphus gives a not so gentle reminder of the mistreatment of Rachel by the people of North Carolina. Though he had a hand in a number of important landmarks, this remains his great opus.

image

image
The back of Rachel Blythe Bauer’s grave

image

image

image

image
One of the sides of the grave

Sequestering himself from the world, Adolphus spent his last days in a room reading Shakespeare and writing. On May 11, 1898, he died from a fatal wound to the head. In his right hand rested a revolver and his left lingered on a photograph of Rachel. As a last testament, his suicide note denoted: “If I, by violence to myself should die, I wish to be buried by the side of my wife, in Raleigh, N.C., where I have so long sojourned and along the Southern people I have liked so well.” Even in his death, the honest architect maintained the satisfaction of having the last word laced with perhaps sarcasm in the mix. Adolphus resided next to Rachel in an unmarked grave until a stone was dedicated to him by the Triangle Native Society, who chose to omit the first part of the speech indicating that death came by his hand.

image

image
Headstone of Adolphus Gustavus

image
The back of A.G. Bauer’s headstone

Although these parents never lived long enough to see their young children grow into adults, Owenah and Fred led long, full lives and became pathfinders in their own right. Fred went on to live with his maternal uncle James and his wife Josephine Blythe. During World War I, Fred joined the American Air Corps and returned to teach at multiple institutions for Native Americans around the country. His work also included advocating for the rights of Native Americans and he is remembered as a tribal councilman among the Cherokee people. Owenah attended Ohio State University and was a part of the Philomathean Literary Society as President. Like her mother, she worked hard and found pleasure in education, which the society endorsed as well as reading. She was quite active at her institution and spoke on occasions about the goodness there.

The union of Adolphus and Rachel lasted a short while in life. Rachel’s weak disposition may have led to her eventual death and Adolphus’ own end may have stemmed from his inability to strive in the world as he was wrought with bereavement, but the emanating source derived from misunderstanding and culture at the time. But in their affinity and death rose a legacy of enduring love in a time of error.

Scarifying Terms: What Graveyard Shift, Dead Ringer and Wake Means

The 1800’s were surely a macabre time to live in. The notion of death held an ominous cloud over the heads of the upright and dour Victorian citizens. Because medicine was still in its infancy, folks naturally knew next to nothing about the human body. In fact, the discovery of the human body and a slew of creative, albeit radical methods of treatments such as lobotomies and herbal tonics highlighted the times. In those days, when loved ones died, there was a nagging thought that those once lively bodies harboured terrible diseases. Leaving unburied bodies surely meant whatever illnesses could freely inhabit a living person. Also, the colors of death began to change a the physical appearances both outwardly and internally thanks to the minimal use of embalming until later in the century. To ensure the safety of the town, bodies were quickly buried without so much as a blink of an eye.

image
Courtesy of the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium
Antoine Wiertz: “The Premature Burial” in 1854

No sooner did the good people rid themselves with possible illness then another problem arose. Old stories mention the unearthing of bodies in cemeteries for new graves when space ran out. But an unthinkable horror worse than disease surfaced. A handful of coffins bore scratch marks from the inside as if the dead somehow came back to life and wanted to rejoin the world above. Realistically, medicine and wrongful burials stayed in the premature category, so this happened more than often. Unfortunately, these poor souls suffocated in tight, dark spaces and some were never rescued.

image
Courtesy of GloCoNJ.com
A boy was found buried alive in the early 1900’s

image

Courtesy of Lauren Ayn Lusk
An illustration of the decease’s hands attached to the life saving contraption

Such is the case of Samuel Jocelyn, a privileged man from Wilmington, North Carolina who found himself entombed in frosty waters after making his way in the dark. Who says love doesn’t kill? It definitely was an end for Jocelyn after a heated fight with his darling new wife. Hastily buried, Jocelyn found himself a victim of a burial gone wrong after his friends dug him up only to find their fun loving pal in life a picture of writhing agony and a body in the most horrible contortion. When the searchers found Jocelyn’s body, it was assumed that he was dead on arrival. But the icy swamp only slowed his heart down enough so that the faint murmurs came close to inaudibility. Alas, the warmth of his new earthly home interrupted his slumber and his last breath drew in the underground abode.

image
Courtesy of http://www.geocaching.com
St. James Episcopal Church’s Cemetery

Perhaps the grim author, Edgar Allan Poe, sums up this pandemonium the best in his stories of violent deaths such as “The Cask of Amontillado” and “The Premature Burial”. His tales captivated the audience of that time but also instilled a fear and truth about early death and the limited knowledge on the topic.

image

An illustrated scene of “The Cask of Amontillado”

image

Edgar Allan Poe

It’s right to say that while the Victorians stared death on a regular basis due to illnesses and lack of medicine, their fear spurred ways to combat the issue. When it was discovered that the possibility of being buried alive was very real, a system of bells and strings were became the craze. Unlike today’s six feet under and steel vaults, the dead laid in shallow graves a few inches below with loose soil on top. Some historians say families resorted to leaving the bodies’ hands sticking out of the graves with a string attached to the finger or wrist, while others say the dead laid in dormancy underground. If the bell rang, then a night watchman or “dead ringer” came to the rescue with shovel in tow.

image
Courtesy of Monovisions Black and White Photograpy Magazine
Daguerreotypes of Victorian Widows in Mourning

The invention of the “safety coffin” also led to the relief of folks in the latter part of the 19th century. The most known device comes from a man by the name of Count Michel de Karnice Karnicki which he aptly termed “Le Karnice”. Here, the body laid in a rectangular box above ground with a bell and a ball on the outside. If the person was still alive, then their movement and change in breath triggered the bell and ball to sound and move, respectively.
image
Courtesy of the New York Academy of Medicine Center for History

On another note, most people regard Henry Ford as the first person to create shift work, but it’s rather a misconception. The third shift came to fruition as night watchmen meandered the premises of the graveyard in hopes of finding the living. The shift lasted from somewhere around late evening to midnight until the early morning. Thankfully, many were found. Some people dispute this tale because another origin of this term comes from sailors working in the dead of night. The eerie calm of night coupled with the imagination’s ability to run wild led to more than a few men quaking till the morning. The shift was a dangerous time because being on a boat in the middle of the night meant that a man could easily fall overboard due to the inability to see clearly at night as he continued his watch or being groggy from no sleep. Nowadays, plenty of people find the “graveyard shift” one of the most challenging things about work.

Another strange tradition stemming from fear of interment has to do with a certain drink. The English took to their ale quite heartily and that mixture coupled with leaden cups would make modern hangovers wilt in shame. The part about the lead is up in the air to historians and science as the maker of drunk men may not be in this element. Only prolonged exposure seems plausible. As the drunkards traverse the dimly lit roads, good samaritans would find them faced down on the ground. These civilians and family members dutifully collected the sloven forms and laid them out on the tables at home in funerary finery awaiting a proper burial. The family would gather round to eat and drink and of course be merry while watching the stranger in curiousity. More than likely, plenty a English man woke up from his stupor and did a little walk of shame home. Dispelling this tale, one can take in another. The roots of a Christian wake goes back to the influences of the Celtic people who would place the dead under a table while the watchers sipped their giddy beverages on the table or elsewhere. Either way, the term “wake” has its roots tied to alcohol.

image
Courtesy of http://www.missmementomori.wordpress.com

Nowadays, wakes consist of families and friends gathering in a church or another space of significance where eulogies are given in memory of the deceased and prayers are said. A modern form of a wake resembling the one in the old days can be seen in a romantic tragedy about unattainable love and heartbreak where a certain person believes his love is lost forever. No, it’s not Romeo and Juliet! Here’s a hint: it’s supernatural with vampires and werewolves at odds and in love. The Twilight Saga:Breaking Dawn — Part 1 depicts a scene where Bella Cullen’s family and friends wait for her to wake up from her morphine and venom induced siesta in the middle of the house. Families in the 1800’s and even later without parlors made do by using a bedroom. Bodies laid on beds or in coffins on top of the bed and people came for the viewing.

image